Haryana is situated in the northern part of India and has a geographical area of 44,212 sq km which constitutes 1.34% of the geographical area of the country. The State lies between latitude 27°39’N to 30°55’N and longitude 74°27’E to 77°36’E. Physiographically Haryana falls in the Indo Gangetic plain although some of the areas fall in Shiwalik hills as well. Climate of the State varies from moist sub- tropical in north bordering Himachal Pradesh to arid in southern part bordering Rajasthan. The State is bordered by Himachal Pradesh and Punjab in the North, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Delhi on the East and Rajasthan on the West & South. The average annual rainfall varies from about 200 mm to 1,400 mm and the average annual temperature ranges between 1°C to 45°C. The Yamuna and the Ghaggar are the important rivers of the state. The state has 21 districts, none are classified as tribal or hill districts. As per the 2011 census, Haryana has a population of 25.35 million accounting to 2.1% of India’s population. The rural and urban population constitutes 34.87% and 65.13% respectively. The population density of the State is 573 per sq km which is higher than the national average. The 19th Livestock census 2012 has reported a total livestock population of 8.82 million.
|Land Use Type||Area (in 000′ ha)||Percentage|
|Reporting area for land utilization||37||0.86|
|Not available for land cultivation||653||14.94|
|Permanent pastures and other grazing lands||25||0.57|
|Land under misc. tree crops and groves||9||0.20|
|Fallow land other than current fallows||22||0.51|
|Net area sown||3,522||80.56|
Source: Land Use Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture, GOI, (2014-15)
A Brief Overview of Forestry Scenario in Haryana
Haryana is primarily an agricultural State of India and 80% of the total geographical area is under agriculture. As per the Champion & Seth Classification of Forest Types (1968), the forests in Haryana belong to three Forest Type Groups i.e. Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest, Tropical Thorn Forest and Subtropical Pine Forests which are divided into 10 Forest Types. Over 500 bird species have been recorded in the State which is almost 40% of total bird species in the country. Although, the maximum portion of the geographical area consists of agricultural fields, over a time, the State has achieved a unique status in the field of agroforestry which has enabled the forest deficient State to support a large number of wood-based industries based on farm-grown timber. Poplar and Eucalyptus trees are the major agroforestry species which have become the main resource for improvement of livelihood of farmers in northern and central parts of the State.
Special emphasis is being given to Soil and Moisture Conservation works in the hills to conserve water and deliver it to adjacent farmlands for increasing their productivity and enhancing incomes. Herbal Parks have been developed in every district to bring people closer to the natural ecosystem.
Recorded Forest Area (RFA) in the State is 1,559 sq km of which 249 sq km is Reserved Forests, 1,158 sq km is Protected Forests and 152 sq km is Unclassed Forests. In Haryana, during the period 1st January 2015 to 5th February 2019, a total of 1,529 hectares of forest land was diverted for non-forestry purposes under the Forest Conservation Act, 1980 (MoEF & CC, 2019).
Two National Parks, eight Wildlife Sanctuaries and two Conservation Reserves constitute the Protected Area network of the State covering 0.75% of its geographical area.